Founded by the Phoenicians around 400 BC, it later became the capital of Mauretania, ruled by Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II. In 44 AD the city was captured by the Romans and the kingdom was divided in half.
From Schoder's lecture notes:
IOL CAESAREA (Cherchel):
Phoenician colony Iol of IV c. Numidian prince Juba II made king by Rome, married to Cleopatra's daughter Selene. Re-named Iol Caesarea to honor Julius Caesar. Capital of Mauretania. Art center. Walls mile & Half by mile. Juba II bequeathed Rome all.
X Roman Square, looking twd. harbor - X Aquaduct nearby
Museum int. -- like Juba II's (Phidian Apollo)
Mosaic: fountain w. Od. & Sirens
X Portr: Domitia Lucilla, mother Marcus Aurelius
Portr: Juba II as youth -- he gave Rome Numidia